Sunday, December 8, 2019
Evolution of penguins Essay Evolution of penguinsFor this evolution project, I choose to research Penguins. The classification for this animal is as follows: K Neornithes, P Palaeognathae, C Neognathae, O Pelecaniformes, F Procellariformes, G Graviidae, S Spheniscidae. The first fossil penguin that was found, is today being held in the British Museum of Natural History. It was reportedly found by an anonymous Maori in New Zealand in 1859 and was named Palaeeudyptes Antarcticus despite the fact that the species was located far away from Antarctica. Since that discovery many more fossils were found and were dated back to the Miocene era and three others from the Pliocene era. Several fossils were dated to the Late Pliocene era and others from the Recent era. The earliest avian fossil found in the southern hemisphere is said to have existed in the Eocene age about 38-54 million years ago. There is evidence that at least three of the modern penguins (Aptenodytes, Spheniscus and Pygoscelis) went extinct within the last 4-5 million years. The remainder of the penguins are from 5-40 million years ago, dating back to the time currently recorded, when penguins evolved from other modern birds. Research suggests that the tallest of these penguins were about 6 feet tall. Penguins did originate from an ancestor that flew some 40 million years ago. The common ancestor is assumed to have been somewhat similar to a modern-day diving petrel or auk in appearance and behavior. The main evolutionary advantage of giving up aerial flight is the improved swimming ability; in particular being able to swim quickly helps in catching fish and being able to dive to great depths (studies show that some modern penguins can dive up to 300meters) which greatly increases the range of food which is available to hunt. Another major influence in the evolution of penguins is likely to have been the availability of vast amounts of food in the ocean. The beak up of the Proto-continent, Gondwanaland, was completed around 200,000,000 years ago and left the Antarctic continent completely surrounded by an ocean. The resulting cold currents established in the southern ocean (once the polar ice cap had formed) made them rich in nutrients and then led to the huge amounts of fish and crustaceans in the area. An additional bonus was that the early penguins could reach and breed on remote islands where no land predators had evolved. The penguins most likely ruled the southern oceans as a top predator for several millions of years. The black and white suit of a penguin helps them to hide from their predators when theyre swimming in the ocean. When a penguin is swimming near the surface its very hard for the sea lions, leopard seals and other predators to see its white underside.
Saturday, November 30, 2019
What's Your Impression? Cameron Culliver CRJ 311: Forensics Gary Naylor 6/28/17 In 1985, Enrique Camarena, a United States Drug Enforcement Agency (DEA) special agent Enrique Camarena, and a DEA source, Captain Zavala, were abducted in Mexico. This particular case involved peculiar forensic issues that necessitated abnormal solutions. The case generated one of the largest investigations by the DEA. On February 7, 1985, the two men were abducted. Eventually, their partly decomposed bodies were found and then autopsies were performed at morgues in Guadalajara. The two slightly decomposed bodies had been wrapped in plastic bags before they were found, and prior to arriving at the morgue, hair and blood samples were extracted from the victims' bodies. The forensics team removed what evidence they possibly could such as soil samples from the body's location that varied from that on the bodies. Forensics issues arose from contamination of crime scenes and evidence destruction encountered during the forensic analyses. The United States law enforcement personnel was resisted and denied accessibility to evidence for a while. Subsequent investigation efforts by a FBI forensic team were hindered by Mexican local officials causing bureaucratic delays. This made it evident that particular Mexican police officials had been paid off to obstruct the process and shut down the investigation prematurely. The FBI was finally granted access to the crime scene site, however, the amount of contamination was excessive due to constant foot traffic at the scene. The scene was left unsecured so law enforcement officials and random visitors from the public population were able to navigate through and touch whatever they wanted. The FBI was restricted in its search and only provided a minimal soil sample. After finally being granted access to where the bodies were kept several days later, the FBI found the unit cleaned the out with evidence removed. The search of the grounds by the FBI forensic team did ultimately yield a license plate in a drain which it photographed and also gathered evidence near the scene. After the police determined a suspect, they were able to also get a vehicle and search it. "The FBI forensic team processed the vehicle for any hair, fiber, blood, and/or fingerprint evidence it might contain" (Saferstein, 2011). Numerous buildings were found once officials were able to search the residence and the holding place of the bodies was determined to be a room in a smaller building. The door of the single room was reinforced with steel and iron. Evidence from forensics and testimony provided determination that Camerena was held and tortured in this room (Saferstein, 2011). Burial sheets, pillowcases, and rope were pieces of significant evidence discovered at the crime scene as well as unsoiled rope from the victims' bodies. Hair samples were extracted from the suspects and tested against samples removed from the victims. There were also carpet fibers which matched carpet in the suspects' house. The litany of errors weren't the fault of one source alone but others of a group or groups involved in attempted cover-up of criminal activity. Ignorance of proper procedure also played a part. Mistake number one stemmed from the crime scene not being secured initially; this led to contamination of the scene. Nothing was documented or recorded. The FBI was not able to start its process in a timely manner after being notified. Presumption could be made that the FBI did not act fast enough or it did not get the necessary paperwork to start its response initially. The initial search was conducted after discovery of evidence rather than law enforcement personnel prompting the search. The complications were overcome by use of unconventional methods and tactical bypassing of specific routine proceedings. Eventually, the complications were negated and virtually all evidence presented at trial factored heavily into the outcome. The trial, which lasted eight weeks, was carried out beneath tight security, and hundreds of witnesses. Each defendant was ultimately convicted on every count as they were found guilty and sentenced to lengthy sentences. In conclusion, the case of Enrique Camarena and Captain Zavala yielded a little amount of evidence. Yet, this was sufficient enough for criminal conviction. Bribery, criminal activity, and mistakes all played a part in this case. Inadequate searches were conducted, and the Mexican government would not divulge most information it had. The fact that it took nearly three years and innumerable searches to ultimately bring the killers to justice is unimaginable. In my mind, immediate notification to the FBI could have eliminated a lot of mistakes which were made. The FBI was limited based on the lack of information it received, but it did the best it could based on
Tuesday, November 26, 2019
George Eliots use of chance and accident in the novel and its implicatation Essays George Eliots use of chance and accident in the novel and its implicatation Paper George Eliots use of chance and accident in the novel and its implicatation Paper Essay Topic: Literature In Silas Marner, George Eliot uses chance and accident to great effect, with various implications. It gives us an insight into George Eliots philosophy on life. Man is often guided by chance, which leads to his destiny, George Eliot regards this as a positive force. Silas Marner has three parts to his life. The first part is briefly talked about, at the beginning of the novel, when he is at Lantern Yard. When at Lantern Yard, Silas is part of a religious group in society. He thought that religion and God would arrange the rest of his life, but he found out that he must work hard to be rewarded, and that God could not do everything for him. He felt betrayed by religion and turned his back on it. As he worked hard he was fortunate and felt privileged with the consequences. Raveloe is the place where the second part of his life begins. He continues weaving, although is a very lonely man as, at first no-one in the village knew of him, being suspicious towards Silas. Because of the events at Lantern Yard, resulting in him being accused of stealing then leaving the village, he thought that God had punished him by not saving him from the trauma, so turned away from religion. Collecting money, hoarding it and counting it was the majority of what happened in Silas Marners second part of his life, as he worked hard weaving. He was not nearly as happy as when at Lantern Yard. : In the third part of his life, Silas was fortunate to be the person of the young girl toddler who had strayed into his house, after her mother had died. This toddler, who was later called Eppie, made Silas become a part of Raveloes society. After these events he went back to being a religious man. He was not at all obsessed with money, as long as he had Eppie. He was happy, once again. In this part of novel Silas is referred to as a spider, he seemed to weave, like the spider, from pure impulse without reflection. Also, spinning insect and insect-like existence. He weaved cloth and it was his livelihood. In addition, his eyes were described many times, large brown protuberant eyes as well as, Marners eyes were set like a dead mans. Silas Marners life appears to be governed by chance, which effect all three parts of his life. For instance, the Deacon at Lantern Yard falling ill, resulting in Silas looking after him, then Silas was accused of stealing his money, the lots declared that Silas Marner was guilty. Also, his money is stolen, the only time he leaves the house open. His door key was infact used to roast his meat, rather than to lock the door. Other chances are that Dunstens horse, Wildfire, is killed, consequently, Dunstan stealing Silas money. Although, an extremely good chance, for Silas. Is that Eppies mother dies outside of Silas cottage, which then has Eppie going into Silas house. Mrs. Dolly Winthrop is a typical country person. She plays a vital role by gradually drawing Silas back into society and the church. Another important person, for a very different reason, is William Dane. He lived with and was friends with Silas although got him (thrown out) of Lantern Yard. This is because he was a crafty, cunning man who only pretended to be friends, using Silas. Godfrey Cass is the Squire Cass, the wealthiest man in Raveloe, son. For Godfrey, money does not bring him happiness. He leads a double life as he pushes a-side important issues, wanting them to be resolved by themselves. He is morally weak, which all adds up to divine punishment for him. Dunsten Cass is the younger brother, to Godfrey. He is an awfully selfish man who blackmails his brother, subsequently faces poetic justice. Nancy Lammeter ends up marrying Godfrey. She is a perfectionist, doing things properly all of the time. She has a tragic life when her baby unfortunately dies. Eppie, Silas daughter does not need to be developed, in the novel, so is a two-dimensional character. She is full of sunshine, shining like the gold and in some ways is a replacement for it. Pathetic fallacy is used greatly in this novel and it seems to be bright and light around her. In Chapter 12 Eppie is discovered by Silas, his own gold brought back to him as mysteriously as it had been taken away. Then in Chapter 19 Eppie makes the decision to stay with Silas, as opposed to going with her newly known father, Godfrey Cass. Chance is one of the main themes that runs throughout Silas Marner. Silas Marners life is based mainly around chance, such as, when Eppies mother dies outside of Silas cottage, Eppie wonders into Silas Marners cottage. A terrible consequence of one chance is when Wildfire is killed, so as Silas cottage door is open again, Dunstan, needing money, desperately steals Silas gold. As well as, at Lantern Yard, they decide Silas is guilty of stealing some money by the drawing of the lots. There is a range of moral standards held by the society in Raveloe. Silas has high standards of behaviour, from the beginning. Dunsey is disposed of, having low moral standards, leading to divine retribution. Godfrey learns to do the right thing, doing his duty, by the end of this novel. Dolly Winthrop has high standards about behaviour. William Dane was devious and a traitor towards Silas, although Silas was rewarded in the end. Dunsey steals Silas gold then consequently dies. Godfrey lies and does not own up so consequently does not get Eppie. Whereas, Silas works hard and does nothing wrong, the consequence of this is that he gets Eppie. Also, Dolly and Aaron Winthrop lead a pleasant life joining Silas happy life. Eppies mother dies outside, at night, in the darkness. Then Eppie goes into Silas cottage filling it with light, more than the gold. Lantern Yard is dark, when Silas is accused of stealing the money, with the drawing of the lots deciding the verdict. In contrast, Raveloe is light. There is lots of light at the end of the fairy tale ending, especially when Eppie and Aaron Winthrop get married.
Friday, November 22, 2019
How to Gain Inspiration from 6 Crazy Tactics That Got People Hired A strong resume and a quality educational background are key factors in getting hired. However, sometimes it takes a little more to nab a job. We donÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily recommend that you try the following 6 crazy tactics that got people hired, but they did work for others, so who knows? Maybe they could work for you too. Proceed at your own riskÃ¢â¬ ¦ 1. Use your artistry to impress.Grab attention however you can. The holiday season once inspired a woman to transform the exterior of her Georgia home into a festive resume. She used Christmas lights to spell out her desire for a job on the front of her house: Ã¢â¬Å"My wish, HR job, Liz Hickok, LinkedIn.Ã¢â¬ The stunt apparently scored her a lot of contacts on LinkedIn. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s networking at its most sparkly!2. Turn your resume into an interactive experience!If youÃ¢â¬â¢re applying to a non-traditional company, why not wow them with a resume theyÃ¢â¬â¢ll be talking about long after youÃ¢â¬â¢ve been hired? Graeme Anth ony was a PR and social media consultant who used his particular skills to put together a highly untraditional resume. Instead of listing his work experience and accomplishments on paper he went the digital route, creating an interactive video resume to get a job. His video stimulated so many job offers that he decided to become a freelancer to work for as many of the interested companies as he could.3. Be persistent.Frankly, stalking a company is a big no-no when trying to get a job. However, this crazy tactic worked for Flavie Bagnol, who was so intent on getting a job at CBS that she called the person in charge of hiring every day until she pinned down a meeting. The best takeaway here is to set your sights on a field, company, or title, and put all of your energy into reaching out to vital people with connections until you make the one that sticks.4. Put your information where important people are sure to see it.Would you ever think that Google-stalking could lead to a job? Admi t it. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ve looked up your own name on Google to see what was out there. Everybody does it, including the people who might hire you. Alec Brownstein took advantage of that fact by creating Google ads for a number of creative directors in the advertising field he hoped to break into. Whenever these directors Google-stalked themselves, the results included Google ads with a personalized message from Brownstein asking for a job interview. The stunt got the enterprising fellow a job at Young and Rubicam.5. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t be afraid to show a bit of personality.Richard Waddington was dashing out of his home to a job interview when his 4-year old daughter offered him a good luck charm: a little toy cow. Waddington was so charmed by the gesture that he stuck the cow in his pocket before leaving. During his interview, the HR person warned him that the office environment was a Ã¢â¬Å"little crazyÃ¢â¬ and asked him if he thought he would Ã¢â¬Å"fit inÃ¢â¬ in such a place. His respo nse: Ã¢â¬Å"I have a cow in my pocket.Ã¢â¬ He then produced the little, plastic bovine from his pocket, a move that so delighted the HR exec that Waddington got the job.6. When all else fails, candy might work.Paper is such a boring vehicle for your resume. It doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t even taste good! Chocolate, however, is scrumptious. A marketing professional named Nicholas used that universal truth to his advantage when he printed his resume on a wrapper wrapped around a bar of chocolate. The stunt got him the job of his sweet dreams. Whether or not his employer ate the chocolate remains a mystery.
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Hashing Algorithm - Research Paper Example In fact, any value or even a single letter is changed in the input; then the values of hash value will also be changed. Additionally, same hash value can be used in calculation in order to find two different inputs; for that reason the hashing algorithms are used to determine the reliability and effectiveness of data (comprising digital signatures, authentication and so on). In some cases, these hash values are also acknowledged as a "message digest". In the past few years, the use of hashing algorithms in every walk of science has increased to massive extent. In fact, hashing algorithms are believed to be the most important technique in data structures and randomized algorithms, within a wide variety of applications and fields like that complexity theory, information retrieval, data mining, parallel algorithms and cryptology (Ostlin & Pagh, 2003). However, hashing algorithms are extensively utilized in the field of information security (Yang, Li, Tan, Yan, & Hou, 2012). In the field of information security, hashing algorithms play a significant role in cryptography and are utilized to achieve numerous security goals. For instance, these algorithms are extensively used to attain reliability and validity, authenticating users of computer systems, implementing efficient digital signatures, putting into practice pseudo random number generators, implementing digital time stamping, creating session keys and sometime for building block ciphers as well. In the history of hashing algorithms a large number of hash functions were created as well as the majority of them were effectively broken and some were to some extent breached, along with it a number of theoretical threats were as well propose (Sobti, Geetha, & Anand, 2012; Algredo-Badillo, Morales-Sandoval, Feregrino-Uribe, & Cumplido, 2012). This paper presents a detailed analysis of hashing algorithms. This paper will discuss the uses and applications of hashing algorithms. This paper will focus on some of the impo rtant hashing algorithms such as digital signatures algorithms, cryptography algorithms and various other techniques. Hashing Algorithms Basically, the process of hashing simplifies the search process by making use of computationally a few operations as compared to any other sequential basic search algorithm. In this scenario, a hash function is a mathematical process in which a number is mapped to a large value range into an additional number with a smaller range. Figure1 demonstrates the process of hashing in the detail. In this diagram, a database that consists of eight specified records (such as addresses in one application) are to be matched in opposition to any received record. In view of the fact that each record contains a huge amount of data as well as the entire database contains a large number of records under actual circumstances, in this scenario scanning all the records and searching through the complete database individually can be unfeasible. However, this problem co uld be resolved if a piece of the record (or on the whole) is chosen and a key is assigned to the target value (normally, this target value is based on a 3-bit value as demonstrated in the figure1) by making use of the hash function (operator). As shown in the figure1, this process has divided a complete database of eight records into smaller groups of records in accordance with their matching hash outputs. In addition, this searching process will be applied to all the searches, in which this
Tuesday, November 19, 2019
Analyse & assess how hobbes & locke's views differ on the state of nature, the social contract, and the system of government. To what extent was each philosophe - Essay Example Ã¢â¬Å"The Ã¢â¬ËState of NatureÃ¢â¬â¢ is a term in political philosophy used in social contract theories to describe the hypothetical condition of humanity before the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s foundation and its monopoly on the legitimate use of physical force.Ã¢â¬ (Wikipedia, 2006). In simpler words it is the condition before the rule of positive law comes into being or a way to discuss the conditions of society and government. Thinkers during the 17th and 18th century believed that whatever good things one had in the state of nature should not be lost when one entered into society. They evaluated the governments based on this condition. Locke believed that in the state of nature men mostly kept their promises. American frontier is an example of people in the state of nature, where property rights and (for the most part) peace existed (James, n.d.). He believed that the state of nature was good. People are in a state of nature when it is socially acceptable to punish for wrongdoings done against you. Hence, if the government could not do as much for people as they did for themselves in the state of nature, the government could be invalidated. HobbesÃ¢â¬â¢ idea of the state of nature concern power and security and not the moral obligations. He believed that in state of nature people could behave badly towards each other. He compared the English Revolution to the Ã¢â¬Ëstate of natureÃ¢â¬â¢, which was brutal. He had a very negative view of the Revolution and this convinced him that kingship was essential. Hobbes opposed LockeÃ¢â¬â¢s view that people will generally follow the law of nature because they are naturally rational and not given to constant war. Locke believed that government should be from the people and that it should be limited so as not to violate the natural rights of people. Ã¢â¬Å"Locke states that the entire population has the right to punish an offender so that he will not commit the crime again and so that others will be deterred from moral law breaking.Ã¢â¬ (Wikipedia, 2006).
Saturday, November 16, 2019
The Native American Essay Native Americans are an indigenous people throughout the world, simply misunderstood and ill-treated for centuries (Scheafer, 2012). History tells us, Native Americans were subject to land theft, controlled by others, and resistance to governance. This discrimination goes back to Christopher Columbus. He and his followers showed true hatred toward the Indian Nation. Europeans moved to extermination or genocide trying to distinguish this culture of people. The United States joined in that mission as time moved forward. Indian land would be taken, the people would be made to conform to the law of the white man causing them to build a defense mechanism of avenging their losses. During the nineteenth century the white man government made policy to give fairness to the tribes. This may have worked if it did not interfere with the needs of the non-Indian people. The American government of the white man used the politics and social differences to interfere in the business of the Native American to govern the Indian culture and beliefs. It has taken centuries for the Native American to trust the policy makers because of broken treaties of the past. Native Americans today, live on Indian reservations in 33 states across the country. Just as in the beginning the American Indian is forced to live their lives in a way determined and controlled by the federal government. The Indian Removal Act developed by Andrew Jackson, was intended to remove Indians from their land to make way for cotton crops and other ways of prosperity. The Termination Act of 1953, like many policies the government had control of, was written to benefit the Native American people. Through this act, many social services were available to the American Indian. These services were a direct obligation to be fulfilled by the treaties, not just a special favor. The Termination Act was developed to gradually do away with these services, when the act passed, all services were cut off immediately. The Indian people worked collectively by creating a tribal or reservation government action to politically protest unfair legislation. The Native Americans fought this legislation by forming civil rights groups to take the issues to the Supreme Court in order to be treated fairly and just. The first national organization was organized in 1944 called the NCAI, National Congress of American Indians (Schaefer, 2012). This National organization is one of the most respected civil rights groups in our nation today. NAGPR Act of 1990, Native American Graves and Protection Act was developed to provide protection to the Native American gravesites and cultural issues. The American Indian worked to lobby the government to find a way to protect their sacred ceremonial ground, ancestral gravesites and artifacts. The government enacted this law in 1990. The American Indian Religious Freedom Act of 1978 was written to give the American Indian the right to believe, express, and exercise the traditions of their tribal spirituality. Peyote is part of the religious rituals used by the Indian Nation. From the 1920s through the 1980s Peyote was a prohibited hallucinogenic outlawed by the government. People were prosecuted for the use of peyote. In 1994 Native Americans won the right to possess, transport and use peyote for religious reasons by amending the American Indian Religious Freedom Act. It is hard to believe that despite the work of the past and present generations of the Naive Americans, they still struggle with economic development, employment levels, quality healthcare, and equal education. The needs of others seem to stand in the way of what is right and fair. References University of Phoenix. (2012). Racial and Ethnic Groups, Thirteenth Edition. Retrieved from University of Phoenix, ETH125 website. (n. d. ). Retrieved from https://cr. nps. gov/local-law/fhpl.
Thursday, November 14, 2019
A Good Role Model It is easy to answer some hard questions such as what does DNA (Deoxyribonucleic acid) stand for. One who studies in microbiology gets that answer in one second. For some easy questions, where does your character and personality come from? it is hard to answer such easy questions. One needs more time to get the answer. Psychologists may be concerned about one's childhood period and family environment. The character and personality is under the control of inherited genes but also is influenced by the environment. It is generally believed that the influence came from a family member during the childhood period and would spread to adulthood. To make a good character and personality for children, a family member needs to be a good role model. The essay "An American Childhood" by Annie Dillard is a good example of how a family member has influence on the children. This essay expresses her idea about her mother when the author looks back at her young age. Children will copy his or her character from the nearest person around them and develop this process until they mature. Family members would be the biggest influence to young children. A young girl imitates her mother and a young boy imitates his father, respectively. From the essay, Dillard said a lot about her mother's character and emotion in many points. Her mother is a strong and independent woman. The author says, "She was an unstoppable force; she never let go"(210). She means that her mother has strong energy to get something done and she never stops until it is accomplished. Her mother's character might differ from other ordinary women at the same time in the early 1960's. Her mother develops the seed of character and personality, which is the great impact and inf luence on her. For example, her mother questioned her about her assumption that Eisenhower would win the election. "How do you know?"(210) her mother questioned her. She said that everyone says that Eisenhower would win. Her mother asked "Did you ask everyone?"(210); She would definitely say that her mother was a straightforward person who questioned every detail in conversations. She had more and more unusual characteristics such as she persuaded the U.S. Post Office to let her keep her old address forever. The author may have learned not to be critical, but also taught her daughter to be independent and strong.
Monday, November 11, 2019
Turkish Reform Under Mustafa Ã¢â¬Å"AtaturkÃ¢â¬ Kemal: A Review on the Six Arrows of Kemalism In the aftermath of World War I, the once great Ottoman Empire was left in shambles. After having lost almost all of the empireÃ¢â¬â¢s territory to European mandates in 1918, what little they had left became occupied by Allied troops. In order to return the Turkish people to their former glory, the Turkish War for Independence was fought, resulting in the creation of a new government in Ankara. By 1923, this government declared the end of the Ottoman Empire and proclaimed the name of the Turkish Republic.At the forefront of this new nationÃ¢â¬â¢s birth was Mustafa Kemal, a man who would come to be known as Ataturk, or Ã¢â¬Å"Father TurkÃ¢â¬ for his contributions to the establishment and reforms of this young state. But what exactly did this Ataturk do for the Republic of Turkey? In order to understand how much an influence Kemalist ideology had on the early days of the Turkish Repu blic, one must define the six basic principles behind it, known as the Six Arrows, learn how they were implemented in the early republic, and analyze the motives behind KemalÃ¢â¬â¢s specific reforms.After doing thusly, one will discover that, had it not been for the influence of Kemalism, Turkey would never have existed in its modern form. The first of the Six Arrows is Republicanism. Republicanism can be defined as a form of government in which the people rule indirectly. Unlike the former Ottoman Empire, in which the primary ruler was the sultan who inherited his position through his genealogy, the Turkish Republic was conceived as a nation through which representatives from among the people would make decisions (86-88). In order to see this idea of Republicanism come to fruition, the long standing sultanate had to be dissolved.Though Kemal intended for this to be a reality since the early days of the War for Independence, he kept this agenda a secret from the populace in order to keep morale and war support high. Had he announced the idea of Republicanism earlier, he might not have been backed by the more traditionalist sectors of the nation. Even after securing victory in the war in 1922, Kemal met with some difficulty in ending the sultanate. Firstly, since its historical foundation under Osman I, the Ottoman Empire had always been ruled by a sultan. This time-honored tradition made the bolishment even more difficult due to the fact that for the past four centuries, the Ottoman sultan occupied the position of caliph of Sunni Islam. So long as the same figure was assigned to both roles, Kemal would have difficulty ending either one. Therefore, in an assembly discussing the nature of the caliphate and sultanate, Kemal claimed that, aside from the Four Rightly Guided Caliphs, the position had become politicized and drifted from its original purpose of solely guiding the Muslim populace on a spiritual level, bereft of any temporal authority.His address to t he assembly resulted in the separation of these two powers and the end of the sultanate. While the last sultan, Mehmed VI, was expelled from the nation shortly afterward, his cousin, Abdulmecid Efendi, took the position of Sunni Caliph Ã¢â¬â something which Mustafa Kemal would deal with in the years to come (Hanioglu 135-40). In September of 1923, Kemal declared the founding of what would eventually become the Republican PeopleÃ¢â¬â¢s Party, made up of representatives from all walks of life including farmers, scholars, merchants, and common workers which would be able to represent the people adequately (143).That October would see KemalÃ¢â¬â¢s declaration of the nation of Turkey as a republic through a unanimous decision from the National Assembly, who would then elect him as the first President of the Republic of Turkey (Volkan 236-237). The next KemalismÃ¢â¬â¢s Six Arrows is Populism. In his review on Turkish History, Sina Aksin describes populism as Ã¢â¬Å"an ideology wh ich safeguards the people, promoting policies for the welfare of all. While populism as a principle designed to bring about what it deems best for the populace as a whole, it is also concerned with enacting change for the better of the minority and individual, bringing all groups within the Turkish nation to a common standing, so long as such change has a positive effect on the mainstream society (Aksin 231). One of the most radical ways that Kemal brought this principle to life was through the emancipation of womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights. Being a heavily traditional Muslim society, the Ottoman Empire allowed women very few freedoms.Mustafa Kemal, on the other hand, borrowing from the Swiss legal system, developed new laws which gave Turkish women more rights. Previously, it had been acceptable for a man to marry several women and divorce his wife at his own discretion, where as a woman was unable to ever leave her husband on her own accord. Under the new laws, men were only allowed to hav e a single wife through a civil marriage, which could only be dissolved through a civil divorce process.Furthermore, until the new civil codes came into existence, traditional Muslim sharia law only allowed a woman to inherit up to half the value of a manÃ¢â¬â¢s inheritance, regardless of her familial position. Women were finally given the ability to enter a number of different lines of work, the most important of which were teaching positions (Mango 437-38). Perhaps an even greater societal change in the Turkish nation came with the end of the millet system. Though this was never an officially declared reform, it came naturally with the institution of national Populism.Under the Ottoman sultanate, members of minority groups existed in small autonomous settlements within the empire called millets, usually classified according to their professed religion. However, since Kemalist ideology effectively sought equality among all citizen groups, this naturally extended to those of diffe rent religious creeds. Under the new laws, which applied to everyone, the legal exceptions made for Christians and Jews in the millet system became obsolete, and eventually they ceased to exist altogether (Volkan 319).Though not originally in the constitution, the principle Arrow of Secularism came to be one of the most influential ideas of the Turkish Republic (Reisman 7). The modern idea of Secularism is a complete separation of Church and State, in which neither institution is involved in influencing the other. Kemalist Secularism, on the other hand, is concerned primarily with placing the State above the Church. Kemal sought not only to keep the influence of Islam and the ulema out of TurkeyÃ¢â¬â¢s new governing body, but to give the ruling faction the power and authority to regulate and suppress Islamic ideologies.This is not to say that Kemal was anti-religion. Kemalism simply attempted to confine religious fervor to the private sector. The earliest and most drastic implemen tation of this principle was seen in the dissolution of the Sunni Caliphate. While separating the political authority of the sultan and the spiritual rule of the Caliphate caused Kemal to be heralded as a champion of Islam, such cheers of heroism would be silenced once he revealed his plan to dissolve the Caliphate as well. He would justify this by again explaining that, after the reign of the FourRightly Guided Ones, the true Caliphate had ended, becoming a tool of the nation (Hanioglu 151). Though Kemal professed to impose this reform for the sake of Islam, it is far more likely that his motivations were anticlerical. Considering the heavy influence that the ulema had on the former Ottoman Empire, KemalÃ¢â¬â¢s choice to dismantle the Caliphate came from a desire to secure power in the secular government without question from a higher religious authority (Davison 138). In addition to this, Kemal closed down the madrasas in 1924, replacing them with secular schools, and in 1925 ba nned all Sufi mystic lodges.While some claim that these efforts were attempts at making religion seem obsolete, it is far more likely that Kemal did this to keep loyalties in order. Since the idea of Turkish Nationalism was still fairly new, Kemal needed to suppress religious zeal so that the populace would be committed to the state first, and their faith second (Hanioglu 155). Added alongside Secularism, the next of the Six Arrows is Revolutionism, the motives for which can best be summed up in a quote from Kemal himself: Ã¢â¬Å"The aim of the revolutions which weÃ¢â¬ ¦ re now accomplishing is to bring the people of the Turkish Republic into a state of society entirely modernÃ¢â¬ ¦ in spirit and from. This is the central pillar of our RevolutionÃ¢â¬ (qtd. in Davison 87). Despite its etymological implications, Revolutionism in the Kemalist sense is intended to be completely peaceful. Some translate the term inkilapcilik, used in the Turkish constitution, as Reformism, in order to distance the concept from the violence associated with the historical idea of revolution. Revolutionism as a Kemalist ideology simply means the modernization, and, in the case of Turkey, the westernization of the country (Parla 92-93).One of the most significant reforms in this area was the state enforced usage of surnames. While this may not seem very progressive to western cultures, the Ottoman Empire existed for centuries without the usage of family names. With the introduction of this practice, the government was able to organize documents far more efficiently. Whereas before, governments had to include names of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s father and mother as well as significant personal information to identify someone, the usage of a family surname made people far more distinguishable on paper. This reform was enforced further by the ban on usage of traditional titles such as Pasha r Efendi, which gave a description of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s status. Instead, men were force to use Bay and women had to use Bayan, which were respective Turkish equivalents for Mister and Miss (Mango 498-99). Though seemingly less significant to western audiences, the Hat Law of 1925 brought about a change towards Revolutionism in a way that was not only profound, but visually noticeable. Under this new law, government officials were required to wear western style hats, while traditional headgear, such as the fez or turban, was banned. In the Ottoman Empire, one of the distinguishing features of class could be seen in the headgear that one donned.The turban was a hat which only the ulema, or religious scholars could wear. The fez, on the other hand, was worn by civil servants of the empire, eventually becoming a feature that westerners began to associate solely with the Oriental idea of the Ottoman Empire. Kemal used the Hat Law of 1925 to ban these two types of hats, not only because they inspired segregation between difference national classes, but because he felt a strong need to break all ties with the previous empire, intending Turkey to become a modern western nation in spirit (Aksin 202-04).Perhaps as important to Kemalist ideology as the idea of Secularism, if not more so, is the Arrow of Nationalism. Unlike the western concept of Nationalism, which is concerned with the geo-political superiority of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s state, Kemalism sought to promote Turkish Nationalism through the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s own merit as an individual nation. While the European Nationalist regimes of Napoleon or Hitler attempted to further their stateÃ¢â¬â¢s through imperialistic conquest, Kemal saw no need to expand TurkeyÃ¢â¬â¢s borders, instead focusing on bolstering pride in being a member of what he saw to be a noble race (Aksin 230).Kemal hoped to establish an identity for the Turkish people, who, until this point, had never had a true homeland of their own. After the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire into French and British mandates cut off most of the empireÃ¢â¬â¢s Arab citizens, the remaining population was almost entirely Turkish, with the exception of a small Kurdish percentage (Hanioglu 133). In order to set up this new identity, Kemal set about commissioning a number of scholastic reforms of Turkish society. He began this by heading the idea known as the Turkish History Thesis. After founding the Society for the Examination of Turkish History n 1931, Kemal recruited renowned archeologists and historians such as Eugene Pittard, and formed a theory proclaiming the Turks as the original civilized race. They claimed that since Trojans and Greeks were racially similar and Trojans came from Anatolia, the Trojans were descendants of the original Turks. Likewise, when ancient Turkish society, which these historians believed came from Central Asia, began to migrate, they founded the Sumerian and Hittite Empires and began to help in the development of other primitive civilizations, such as the Chinese and Indians (164-170).Yet as extensive as KemalÃ¢â¬â¢s attempts at forming the Turkish History Thesis were, they did not accomplish the practical advantages that his language reform did. This began in 1928 with the state enforced switch from the Arab-Persian script to a Latin based alphabet, which Kemal believed more suitable to the Turkish language. He furthered this idea by commissioning scholars to discover what they deemed Ã¢â¬Å"pure Turkish vocabulary,Ã¢â¬ derived from words and phrases used in Turkish speech but not in other languages.Soon after, these scholars developed the Sun-Language Theory, which, based off of similarities between Turkish and other world languages, claimed that Turkish was the first spoken language (Mango 494-95). Though this theory lacked legitimate evidence, it justified borrowing words for the new state approved form of Turkish, as through this view all words developed from an original Turkish language. Soon after the language the development of the new standard Turkish, translations of many of the nationÃ¢â¬â ¢s important documents, such as the constitution and KemalÃ¢â¬â¢s Great Speech were translated.It would take a number of years for the new form to be used fluently by the people, however these efforts were sped by state issued pocket Ottoman-Turkish dictionaries (Hanioglu 171-79). Finally, Kemalist ideology is also defined by the Arrow of Statism, or Etatism. This is the idea of modernizing in terms of economic and technological advances. A major part of Kemalist Statism is the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s active role in guiding the economy. That is not to say that Statism is completely anti-capitalist. On the contrary, Kemalism supports the idea of personal property and free enterprise when it benefits the people.However, for the most part, the ideal Kemalist government is one that is heavily involved in the regulation of such commerce (Parla 125). The first attempt at government managed economy was the nationalization of foreign commerce. This was done for a number of reasons. First, Ke mal wanted to establish ties with foreign, mostly European nations in an attempt towards westernization and expansionism. Since Kemal based most of his models for his new nation off of preexisting European ones, he felt that relations with such nation would prove to be a useful tool.Ironically, KemalÃ¢â¬â¢s other reason for nationalized foreign investment was to prevent such expansionism in the other direction. With World War I still only a short time behind them, most of the world had eyes on Turkey. Foreign powers could easily turn investment in the public sector of the Turkish people into a bridge for imperialism. Thus, to prevent such threats from coming to fruition, the Turkish government sponsored services including electricity, water distribution, docks, and gas instillations, starting in the early 1920s.This not only helped Turkey provide for the necessities of its people, but gave them a strong economic foothold in the years of the Great Depression. Among these new govern ment funded resources, there was a large emphasis on the construction of railroads. Beginning in 1923, new railway lines spanning over 3,350 kilometers were constructed. This focus on railway expansion was due to the limited resources owned by the state. Trains ran on steam engines, fueled by coal, which was an abundant natural resource in Turkey.While many other nations focused on expanding motorways during this period, this would have caused a need to import petrol from foreign nations, making Turkey economically dependent on countries able to provide such fuel (Aksin 223-24). Mustafa Kemal continued to implement his idealistic reforms until his death in 1938. Despite never being able to establish Turkey as a nation that completely embodied his ideology, he left behind a legacy by which he is revered to this day. Street corners and government establishments are still adorned with his image, in honor of his great achievements.It is safe to say that had it not been for his efforts a t reform, Turkey would never have risen to itÃ¢â¬â¢s current place in the modern world. It is possible that it may never have even existed without him. In conclusion, one may realize that many of AtaturkÃ¢â¬â¢s reforms seem to fall under more than one of his Six Arrows. The establishment of a single party, made up of representatives from all classes fulfills the Republican requirements of the new government, while assuring that the Populist Ã¢â¬Å"voice of the peopleÃ¢â¬ will be heard.AtaturkÃ¢â¬â¢s language reforms were not only Revolutionary, completely reorganizing the old Ottoman linguistic structure, but helped establish a Nationalist identity through the Sun Language Theory. One can only understand what Kemal did for Turkey by understanding that the Six Arrows of Kemalism were guidelines by which Ataturk devised new laws for the new Turkish Republic Ã¢â¬â guidelines which compliment and fulfill each other Ã¢â¬â guidelines devoted to the progress of the Republic of Turkey. Works Cited Aksin, Sina. Turkey: From Empire to Revolutionary Republic. Washington Square, NY: New York UP, 2007. Davison, Andrew.Secularism and Revivalism in Turkey: A Hermeneutic Reconsideration. New Haven: Yale UP, 1998. Hanioglu, M. Sukru. Ataturk: An Intellectual Biography. Princeton: Princeton UP, 2011. Mango, Andrew. Ataturk. Woodstock, NY: Overlook, 2002. Parla, Taha, and Andrew Davison. Corporatist Ideology in Kemalist Turkey: Progress or Order? Syracuse, NY: Syracuse UP, 2004. Reisman, Arnold. Turkey's Modernization: Refugees from Nazism and Ataturk's Vision. Washington, DC: New Academia Publ. , LLC, 2006. Volkan, Vamik D. , and Norman Itzkowitz. The Immortal Ataturk: A Psychobiography. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1986.
Saturday, November 9, 2019
Many inventions are discovered by accident and that is the case of KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s. In 1898, W.K Kellogg and his brother Dr. John Harvey Kellogg attempted at making granola and failed but their failure led to flaked corn which then became KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s Corn Flakes. KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s Company engages in the manufacture and marketing of ready-to-eat cereal and convenience foods. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s success is due to the continuous improvement in the product line to adapt to changes in consumersÃ¢â¬â¢ taste. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose is to do more than simply offer products beneficial to the consumers. The company is always seeking ideas to improve the customerÃ¢â¬â¢s experience of consuming the product through the packaging, graphics, and labels. KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬â¢ vision is to Ã¢â¬Å"enrichÃ¢â¬ and offer products that are more environmentally friendly and satisfy the world through foods that matter. KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬â¢ activities in the United States are subject to regulations. Some of the government agencies that regulate KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s include the Food and Drug Administration, Federal Trade Commission and the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce and Labor. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s facilities are subject to various U.S. and foreign, federal, state, and local laws and regulations regarding the release of material into the environment and the protection of the environment in other ways. KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s has an Emerging Issues Team that helps keep their Executive Leadership Team up-to-date of evolving health, nutrition and food safety issues that could potentially impact the consumers and business. In addition, the Crisis Incident Management Team evaluates and manages incidents that can have a high impact on the business such as natural disasters, product recalls and health epidemics. KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s has a Social Responsibility and Public Policy Committee whose duty is to oversee all aspects of their corporate responsibility approach. The audit Committee is composed of four non-management Directors and they meet with management, internal auditors, and the independent registered public accounting firm to review accounting, internal control, auditing and financial reporting matters. To help prevent fraud and other unethical practices, the board and senior management set the Ã¢â¬Å"tone at the topÃ¢â¬ . It is important for the company to have a corporate culture that promotes ethical conduct. KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s has an Office of Ethics and Business Conduct that clarifies company policy or reporting issues related to ethics and business conduct. The Ethics Office provides online training and basic information on legal and regulatory requirements, policies and standards of the Global Code of Ethics. Each year the employees are given a questionnaire that asks about information of relationships or activities that may lead to a conflict of interest and about any known violation of policies or practices. The ethics office support the internal controls that are put into place to ensure employees obey the personal and professional standards. The internal audit program evaluates the appropriateness and effectiveness of these internal controls. In order to have a better understanding of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s financials, the ratios give an insight as to how the company is doing compared to the industry. The current ratio can give a sense of the efficiency of a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s operating cycle or its ability to turn its product into cash. KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬â¢ current ratio of .7 compared to the industry ratio of 1.2 suggests that the company would be unable to pay off its obligations if they came due at that point. Companies that have trouble getting paid on their receivables or have long inventory turnover can run into liquidity problems because they are unable to alleviate their obligations. When comparing KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬â¢ return on assets ratio of 8 to the industryÃ¢â¬â¢s ratio of 10.8, we see that KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s is not being too effective in converting money it has to invest into net income. Management needs to make clever choices in allocating its resources so that they can make a large profit with little investment. As for the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s inventory turnover of 6.8 compared to the industry average of 2.9, the ratio shows that KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s has greater sales efficiency and a lower risk of loss through un-saleable stock. Kellogg faces a potential risk with their long-term debt. KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬â¢ long-term debt to equity ratio of 2.49 compared to the industryÃ¢â¬â¢s average of .68 indicates that the company has been aggressive in financing its growth with debt. This can result in unstable earnings as a result of the additional interest expense if the company cannot maintain lower interest rates on their long-term debt. The long-term debt from 2010 went from 4,908 million to 5,037 million in 2011. On February 15, 2012 KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬â¢ entered into an agreement to acquire Pringles, owned by Procter & GambleÃ¢â¬â¢s, for $2.695 billion. The purchase comes with some risks for KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s shareholders since the transaction is intended to be funded by international cash and issuance of about $2 billion of short and long-term debt. The companyÃ¢â¬â¢s strategy to pay down the debt requires limiting share repurchases to employee option exercises for the next two years. To ensure that the employees provide long-term performance, the company uses stock-based compensation, including stock options, restricted stock and executive performance shares. When comparing the operating profit from 2010 of $1,990 million to 2011 operating profit of $1,976 million, there is a decline which was negatively impacted by the supply chain investments and reestablishment of the incentive compensation program as a result of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s strong pay-for-performance orientation. The table below shows the $6.4 million increase in key executive compensation from 2010 to 2011. The increase is mainly due to salary increase and restricted stock award and securities options increase. The management compensation plan that is tied to profit results may cause management to provide erroneous numbers. It seems today everyone is going Ã¢â¬Å"greenÃ¢â¬ and therefore consumers are paying close attention to how their food is made and where it is sourced. With that in mind, KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s has begun to use only sustainably grown palm oil in Europe. The company has invested in Green Pal sustainable palm oil certificates to encourage the expansion of more responsible palm oil farms. KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬â¢ faces a challenge in addressing the growing concern against destructive agricultural practices that has alarmed many companies into ensuring their ingredients are environmentally friendly. KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬â¢ faces growing urgency as more consumers shy away from products containing palm oil if they cannot verify the source. KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢sÃ¢â¬â¢ has to keep up with the Ã¢â¬Å"greenÃ¢â¬ mentality and do what it takes to educate their consumers about their environmentally friendly products. In conclusion, KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s appears to be an acceptable client. There are several areas of the company that require attention for example the long-term debt and the acquisition of Pringles. Also, going Ã¢â¬Å"greenÃ¢â¬ is an issue that can be challenging to the company since they have to address the concern against destructive agricultural practices. Overall, I look forward to working with Kellogg Company and being of assistance. WORKS CITED Kaye, Leon. Ã¢â¬Å"KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s Commits to Sustainable Agriculture and Water Stewardship.Ã¢â¬ 24 April 2012. 18 Jan. 2013. < http://www.triplepundit.com/2012/04/kelloggs-sustainable- agriculture-water-stewardship-2011-corporate-responsibility-report/>. Ã¢â¬Å"Kellogg CompanyÃ¢â¬ DailyFinance. 17 Jan. 2013 . Ã¢â¬Å"Kellogg Company.Ã¢â¬ Morningstar. 18 Jan. 2013 . KelloggÃ¢â¬â¢s. 2012. 18 Jan. 2013